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中国民乐袖珍乐器——二胡

 

规格:

280mm

包装类型:

精美礼盒

弓弦樂器二胡是流傳於中國廣大地區的擦奏弦鳴樂器,因具兩條弦,故名二胡,亦稱胡琴、南胡、嗡子等,近幾十年來始定名為二胡,其構造由琴筒、琴桿、弦軸、琴弦、千斤、弦馬構成。木製琴筒是共鳴箱,有圓形或六角、八角形,前端蒙蟒皮,後端置音窗,琴桿修長,上端彎曲;弦軸兩個,上縛內、外兩弦,過去用絲弦,現在普遍使用金屬弦,也有使用尼龍纏弦的。千斤在琴弦中腰與琴桿之間,有活動的與固定的兩種。琴弦下部在蟒皮的正中用竹或木製弦馬架起,琴弓用細竹縛以馬尾製成,弓毛夾置於兩弦之間;當弓毛與琴弦摩擦,使琴弦產生振動,通過弦馬將振動傳給皮膜而使振動擴大,在音箱內引起共鳴,發出特定色彩的音響;一般說來,內弦富有豐滿、柔和而優雅的音色,外弦則較為明亮、剛健。<BR>  二胡把位較多,在構造上無固定品位,理論上可作自由轉調。而二胡發音可持續不斷,強弱變化自然,最接近人聲,對於演奏柔和細緻的抒情性作品能刻劃入微,但也不僅僅局限於這一種格調的作品,如《聽松》的雄奇鏗鏘、《三門峽暢想曲》的澎湃洶湧、《翻身歌》的活潑歡快等,都可勝任。通過一些特殊演奏手法,還可奏出如鳥鳴、鑼鼓聲、馬嘶、馬蹄聲等模擬效果。<BR>  一九五O年代以來,音樂家們還創製了和二胡配套的樂隊樂器,如高胡、中胡、大胡、低音二胡(大革胡)以及雙千斤二胡、三弦胡琴等。名音樂家華彥鈞和劉天華創作了《二泉映月》、《聽松》、《病中吟》、《月夜》、《空山鳥語》、《光明行》、《良宵》等膾炙人口的名曲,使二胡成為專業化的獨奏樂器;其後再經擴大音量、改進音質等方面的改革嘗試,二胡演奏技巧日益豐富,創作手法和題材日益更新擴充,出現許多優秀的二胡獨奏曲及大型協奏曲,在近代樂壇上影響深遠。<BR>  Erhu is the most popular bowstring instrument of national music in China. ‘Erhu’ means its only double strings to play and had been named in early 20th Century. <BR>  This musical instrument sounds with a six or eight angled echo cylinder of mahogany, covered with skin of python in front and sound-window inlayed in the backboard. Its prolonged wooden pole is designed with a curve in its head, while the material of string used to be some natural fiber but it is almost metallic nowadays. Well, there are some other types of this instrument made with artificial nylon strings, too. <BR>  The bowstring was inlayed within this double string. Vibrations was enlarged and transferred to the echo cylinder when the bowstring was friction on the string back and forth. Usually, timbre of the inner string is plenty, tender and grace while timbre of the outer string is more bright and forcible. <BR>  As a bowstring instrument, sounds of the erhu are continuous and natural. It could imitate human voice very well and express the feelings of each movement most thoroughly. Moreover, it is very smart in describing soft music with tenderness and exquisiteness. On the other hand, it is also excellent in revealing such as forceful, ups and downs, lively and joyful atmospheres. Moreover, to imitate bird’s singing, sounds of percussions, horse’s crying and galloping with specific techniques. <BR>  To played in accompany with erhu, the Chinese musicians had developed some similar instruments of different music scales, such as kaohu, zhonghu, dahu as well as the bass-erhu, double-qianjined erhu and sanhu. While there were many popular erhu solo works and erhu concerto had been developed with the highly improvements of this instrument and its composing manners

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